The History of Broadcasting
Television’s popularity began around 1926 when inventor John Logie Baird used it to transmit images picked up from his new invention, the television camera tube. In 1928, Baird transmitted moving pictures through telephone lines — without sound — and the world took notice. By 1930, there were more than 100 stations transmitting via radio waves but only one station had successfully broadcast live picture and audio over phone lines.
A year later, Edwin Howard Armstrong invented FM (frequency modulation) technology that allowed broadcasters to carry two conversations at once using just one frequency. It wasn’t long before FM broadcasts became popular because they could be heard clearly even indoors where AM radios couldn’t reach. While AM radio remained popular until the 1960s, most Americans now listen to FM music and news broadcasts.
By 1947, there were 4 million televisions installed in American homes, and in 1949, President Truman famously tuned in to watch baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Boston Braves. Early televised football games weren’t much different than today – players ran onto the field, threw punches and jumped over each other like animals running after prey. But things got better quickly. With improved technologies such as cathode ray tubes, color cameras and video tape recorders, sportscasters eventually developed colorful “play by play” descriptions of what happened during the game. Nowadays, we call these type of reports “color commentary.” Sportscaster Frank Gifford helped create some of America’s greatest moments in sports reporting while working for CBS News including Super Bowl I coverage. He also created the iconic phrase “catch the ball,” which he coined after seeing a young boy run near the sidelines chasing a fly ball. Later, sportscasting would become synonymous with color commentary, interviews and breaking news updates.
Today, sports broadcasting can take many forms, both live and prerecorded. We’ve come a long way from following our favorite teams’ every move on black-and-white TVs. From watching them on our computers or cell phones, following your favorite athlete’s career path from high school all the way to pro sports, or listening to their latest interview are all ways sports broadcasting continues to evolve.
Read more about specific types of sports broadcasting below.
How Broadcast Works
History of Broadcasting
How Broadcast Works
There are several methods for capturing footage for use in sports broadcasts, whether live or prerecorded. Cameras may film directly offsite, or nearby depending upon the situation. For example, if the broadcaster wants to show closeups of a player making a great shot, a cameraman may set up shop outside the locker room door or next to the basketball court so the angle doesn’t obscure any key scenes. If the scene being filmed takes place inside the arena, a camera crew will usually work together to avoid blocking the audience view of the playing floor. A director watches the feed from monitors located throughout the stadium or arena. Sound technicians must coordinate visual elements and keep track of timecode information. This allows editors to cue commercials, breaks or replays based upon when certain actions occur. They might cut out a commercial break, change a graphic banner or add more graphics during a replay.
Live broadcasts require additional equipment and personnel, especially if the production truck is stationed far away from the venue. At press events prior to airing, producers often shoot extra shots and pieces of dialogue to help ensure everything runs smoothly during airtime. After filming concludes, the producer sends tapes of the finished product to the network’s studio facility. There, a technician mixes the signal down to stereo tracks, adds background noise and adjusts volume levels. When ready for prime time, the videotape goes to a video effects house where special effects artists can put together highlight reels and montages. Once approved, the program gets its final title and tagline added and the entire package is sent to the network for review. Some networks prefer not to edit programs, choosing instead to simply splice clips together to make highlights packages. During this process, the original source material often ends up discarded or recycled forever.
Prerecording involves shooting multiple angles beforehand and combining those separate productions into one cohesive piece. These shows are typically less expensive to produce and allow viewers to see multiple angles of the same incident within a single frame. To do this, a director shoots multiple shots and records voiceover simultaneously while the actual footage plays back. Viewers never actually see another person directing the recording session. Instead, the director keeps notes as he works and dictates the script. Then, an editor combines all the individual shots into one seamless presentation. Prerecorded programming is cheaper to produce, but it requires more skilled workers and more time because each clip must meet strict guidelines regarding content, timing and length.
Another method for producing sports broadcasts is called telecast. Telecasts involve a remote location where the production crew films from behind one wall. Camera operators direct the action from a monitor or a control center. The main advantage of telecast 스포츠중계티비 over prerecording is that the end result looks exactly like real life does in front of thousands of eyes. However, telecast isn’t always possible due to weather conditions, security concerns and distance limitations. Plus, having dozens of people milling around in the background creates logistical problems for editing, especially when multiple cameras capture hundreds of hours of raw footage.
Now let’s look at how live and taped sports broadcasts made their way to audiences across the country. Read more in How Broadcasters Work.
Sports broadcasting has grown exponentially since the 1920s. Over the years, countless innovations and advancements have occurred. One major development came in 1979 when satellite communications provider ARDIS launched Telstar II, the world’s fastest communication system capable of sending signals instantaneously anywhere in the world. That breakthrough paved the way for three-dimensional imaging, resulting in clearer views of stadiums and arenas. Another advancement was 3DTV technology, which debuted in 1998. Unlike traditional 2DTV systems, 3DTV produces crisp images that appear lifelike thanks to polarized glasses worn by viewers. 3DTV uses higher resolution than standard HDTVs, allowing the viewer to perceive depth. Finally, digital media has allowed broadcasters to deliver live feeds and recordings instantly to millions of listeners. Satellite providers DirecTV and Dish Network offer electronic text messaging services to customers, as well as streaming online video to computer screens and mobile devices. And cable companies provide similar services with their own proprietary platforms.
While technological advances continue to improve sports scores, commentators still rely heavily on metaphors and analogies to explain complex concepts. Popular terms include lowlight, zone defense, offensive scheme and touchdown drive. Alliterative phrases such as “that’s a wrap,” “let’s go again,” “all systems go” and “no good deed goes unpunished” originated in the early days of broadcasting. Most announcers started speaking faster and louder as the excitement level increased. Eventually, microphones replaced megaphones and scripts were phased out. Since then, commentators seem to find their voices naturally, either rising above cheering crowds or dropping deep.
Let’s take a closer look at what sportscasting is really all about. Read more about sportscasting tips below.
Before becoming a commentator, most athletes dream of doing something else for a living. Many aspire to be famous enough to host talk shows or perform as actors. Others want to achieve success as coaches or managers. Yet others hope to win lucrative endorsements for products ranging from nutritional supplements to cars. Unfortunately, few realize that sports broadcasting offers the best combination of fame and fortune. As the face of a franchise, sportscasts receive worldwide attention, sometimes overshadowing even bigger names and larger organizations. Fans tune in daily to hear the unique perspective of someone whose job description includes describing athletic feats. Athletes tend to enjoy knowing their personal brand extends beyond competition day. Even though celebrity status comes easily to some sports stars, earning a spot as a commentator requires lots of hard work and dedication. Here are some helpful guidelines for aspiring commentators.
First, choose a position carefully. Different positions suit different personalities and skill sets. Commentators should possess strong written and oral skills, along with experience covering sports events. Reporters handle public relations duties, interviewing athletes and officials while providing important context. Analysts analyze data and trends related to particular competitions. Hosts introduce segments and lead discussions. Although hosting tends to pay slightly less per hour, it gives sportscast hosts greater freedom to cover whatever interests them. Therefore, hiring a topnotch analyst is worth paying more money. Before starting, however, ask current analysts for advice on how to succeed in this role. Also consider joining a union and taking part in training seminars offered by trade groups. Becoming certified in statistics, writing and research techniques helps future employers evaluate potential hires.
Next, familiarize yourself with jargon and slang. Familiarizing yourself with sports lingo helps communicate effectively with fans, teammates and opponents alike. Jargon varies widely among sports, yet everyone knows general terminology. Common examples include layup, basket, foul line, double dribble, block attempt and free throws. Slang evolves constantly, changing dramatically from decade to